Haloalkanes and Haloarenes | Class 12 Chemistry Notes Pdf

Learn the Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Notes Pdf. Download the haloalkanes and haloarenes Class 12 Chemistry Notes Pdf. It’s time to learn the class 12 haloalkanes and haloarenes chapter of organic chemistry. You shall learn in chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter. Such as the physical properties of haloalkanes and haloarenes, the difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes, Classification of haloalkanes and haloarenes as well as Nomenclature of haloalkanes and haloarenes etc.

Now, The time is for the learning of the definition of Class 12 Chapter 10 haloalkanes and haloarenes in brief. Let’s know the definition of haloalkanes and haloarenes topic of Organic Chemistry Class 12 in brief.

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

What is haloalkanes and Haloarenes with example? Describe it in brief.

The definition of haloalkanes and haloarenes of class 12 chemistry is following

Haloalkanes:- It is an aliphatic hydrocarbon compound but in it, one or more hydrogen atoms is replaced by one or more halogen atoms, called Haloalkanes. We call it also Alkyl Halides. The other name of Haloalkane is Alkyl Halides.

Haloarenes:- It is an aromatic hydrocarbon compound but in it, one or more hydrogen atoms is replaced by one or more halogen atoms, called Haloarenes. We call it also Aryl Halides. The other name of Haloalkane is Aryl Halides.

The example of Haloalkane or Alkyl Halides and Haloarene or aryl halides of Class 12 Chemistry Notes Pdf is the following.

Haloalkane & Haloarene Compound’s NameCompound’s Structure
1-Bromopentane Haloalkanes-example-class-12-chemistry-chapter-10
2-Chloropentane
2-Bromo-2-methyl butane Class-12-chemistry-2-bromo-2-methyl-butane
1-Bromobutane Class-12-chemistry-1-bromobutane
1-Chloro-2-methyl benzene 1-Chloro-2-methyl-benzene
Benzyl Chloride Benzyl-Chloride
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12 Notes Pdf

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12 Notes Pdf

What is the general formula of Haloalkanes or Alkyl Halides? Describe it in brief.

Let us know the general formula of it in brief. The general formula of Haloalkanes or Alkyl Halides is R-X. Where R denotes the alkyl group and X denotes the halogen atom.

What is the general formula of Haloarenes or Aryl Halides? Describe it in brief.

Let us know the general formula of it in brief. The general formula of Haloarenes or Aryl Halides is Ar-X. Where Ar denotes the aryl group and X denotes the halogen atom.

Learn the Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 P block elements as well as Chapter 8 d and f block elements.

Now, we start to learn the following topic of haloalkane and haloarene chapter 10 of Class 12 Chemistry. These topics are important for making `best notes for the board exam of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 haloalkane and haloarene. All the topics are following.

Nomenclature of haloalkanes and haloarenes
Classification of haloalkanes and haloarenes
Difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes
Physical Properties of haloalkanes and haloarenes

Haloalkanes-and-haloarenes-class-12-notes-pdf-chemistry
Haloalkanes-and-haloarenes-class-12-notes-pdf-chemistry

Nomenclature of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Pdf

Learn the nomenclature of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 notes pdf in brief.

Let start to read the nomenclature of haloalkanes and haloarenes of hydrocarbon compounds. The nomenclature of these carbonic compounds is following.

Haloalkanes Nomenclature (X = Chlorine)Haloarenes Nomenclature (X = Chlorine)
Methyl Chloride (CH3-Cl)Chlorobenzene (C6H5-Cl)
Ethyl Chloride (C2H5-Cl)1,4-Dichlorobenzene (C6H4-Cl2)
n-Propyl Chloride (C3H7-Cl)1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene (C6H3-Cl3)
1-Chlorobutane (C4H9-Cl)1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene (C6H2-Cl4)
1-Chloropentane (C5H11-Cl)Pentachlorobenzene (C6HCl5)
nomenclature of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 notes pdf
Haloalkanes Nomenclature (X = Bromine)Haloarenes Nomenclature (X = Bromine)
Methyl Bromide (CH3-Br)Bromobenzene (C6H5-Br)
Ethyl Bromide (C2H5-Br)1,4-Dibromobenzene (C6H4-Br2)
n-Propyl Bromide (C3H7-Br)1,2,3-Tribromobenzene (C6H3-Br3)
1-Bromobutane (C4H9-Br)1,2,4,5-Tetrabromobenzene (C6H2-Br4)
1-Bromopentane (C5H11-Br)Pentabromobenzene (C6HBr5)
nomenclature of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 notes pdf

Classification of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12

Learn the classification of haloalkanes and haloarenes in brief.

There are mainly two parts of classification of haloalkanes and haloarenes of class 12 organic chemistry notes pdf. They are as follow.

  1. On the basis of the number of the halogen atom
  2. On the basis of the hybridisation of a carbon atom attached to a halogen atom

(1) On the basis of the number of the halogen atom: – It is the 1st part/type of classification of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 chemistry. In it, we find and count the number of the halogen atoms in the haloalkanes compound as well as haloarenes.

If the number of the halogen atom in haloalkanes, as well as haloarenes, is one then we call that compound mono-haloalkane and mono-haloarenes, respectively. Similarly, the number of halogen atoms are two, we call them di-haloalkane and di-haloarenes. Again, other compounds likewise tri, tetra, Penta etc.

(2) On the basis of the hybridisation of a carbon atom attached to a halogen atom:- It is the 2nd part/type of classification of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 chemistry notes pdf. In it, we will learn the sp3 C-X, as well as sp2 C-X, bonded compounds, VIC-halides and gem-halides in brief.

There are three types of sp3 C-X bonded compounds. All three parts of this hybridisation of carbon compounds are following:-

sp3 C-X bonded compounds

(a) Alkyl halides or Haloalkanes:- As we know, In alkyl halides, the halogen atom attacts with the alkyl group. Again, it is divided into three parts on the basis of the nature of the carbon atom.

Primary Alkyl HalidesSecondary Alkyl HalidesTertiary Alkyl Halides
The halogen atom is bonded to a primary carbon.The halogen atom is bonded to a secondary carbon.The halogen atom is bonded to a tertiary carbon.
The number of the alkyl groups is one.The number of the alkyl groups is two.The number of the alkyl groups is three.
Example:- CH3CH2Br Example:- CH3​CHCl−CH3 Example:- C4H9Cl
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12 Notes Pdf

(b) Allylic halides:- In this type of sp3 C-X bonded compound, the halogen atom is bonded to adjacent carbon which is bonded with a carbon-carbon double bond. An example of allylic halides is CH3CH=CHCH2Cl.

(c) Benzylic halides:- In this type of sp3 C-X bonded compound, the halogen atom is bonded to carbon which is bonded with an aromatic ring carbon. An example of benzylic halides is C6H5-CH2-Cl.

sp2 C-X bond compounds

(a) Vinyl Halides:- In vinyl halides, the halogen atom is attached to the sp2 carbon of the carbon-carbon double bond. An example of vinyl halides is CH2=CH-Cl.

(b) Aryl halides:- In aryl halides, the halogen atom is attached to the sp2 carbon of the benzene ring. An example of aryl halides is C6H5-Cl.

VIC-halides and gem-halides:- That haloalkane in which two halogen atoms are attached to two adjacent carbon atoms are called vicinal halides whereas two halogen atoms are attached to one carbon atom are called gem halides.

Difference Between Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Learn the difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes in brief.

Haloalkanes or Alkyl HalidesHaloarenes or Aryl Halides
It is made by an aliphatic group (alkanes, alkenes).It is made by an aromatic group (benzene).
These are aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds.These are aromatic hydrocarbon compounds
It may or may not be cyclic compounds.It must be cyclic compounds.
It may be open-chain or closed chain compounds.It must be closed chain compounds.
It has an unpleasant odour.It has a pleasant odour.
Examples of it:- 1-Bromopentane, 2-Chloropentane.Examples of it:- Benzyl Chloride, 1-Chloro-2-methyl benzene.
Difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 notes pdf
Haloalkanes-and-haloarenes-class-12-notes-pdf-chemistry
Haloalkanes-and-haloarenes-class-12-notes-pdf-chemistry

Physical Properties of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Learn the physical Properties of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12 notes pdf in brief.

Now, It’s time to learn the physical properties of haloalkanes and haloarenes of class 12 chemistry Notes pdf. The physical properties of haloalkanes and haloarenes of class 12 chemistry Notes pdf are following.

The physical properties of Haloalkanes are following

  1. Melting and Boiling Point:- Generally, the melting point and boiling point of haloalkanes are low and high, respectively.
  2. Colour and odor:- Haloalkanes compounds are colourless as well as odorless hydrocarbon compounds excepts some.
  3. Nature:- Generally, These compounds are hydrophobic compounds.
  4. Density:- As the density of haloalkanes increases with increase in the number of halogen atoms.
  5. Solubility:- Haloalkanes are soluble in water.

The physical properties of Haloarenes are following

  1. Melting and Boiling Point:- Generally, the melting point and boiling point of haloalkanes are low and high, respectively.
  2. Colour and odor:- Haloarenes compounds are colourless as well as odorless hydrocarbon compounds excepts some.
  3. Nature:- Generally, These compounds are hydrophobic compounds.
  4. Density:- As the density of haloarenes increases with increase in the number of halogen atoms.
  5. Solubility:- Haloarenes are soluble in water.

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